Notion of a case study

Case study is a deep study of an individual, group, event, or community. Data are usually collected from various sources using different methods (eg, observations, or interviews). Work with the results can continue only after the experiment is completed.

A case method is a method that arose in clinical medicine (for example, a case history, that is, a patient`s personal history). The method of case study often involves a simple study of what happened, sometimes it also includes the reconstruction of the history of the case of an individual, or a group (such as a school class, or other specific social group). This approach allows the researcher to study the topic in much more detail than in the case of a large set of cases, as the case in experiments that operate on result arrays (nomothetic approach) and averaged data.

How to write a case study in psychology?

The method of case study by itself is not a research method, but experimenters select one or another method of data collection, or an analytical tool that allows receiving materials suitable for this type of study. Psychologists turn to this method, when they deal with certain data sources, for example, with unstructured information, such as everyday life, promiscuous interviews, personal diaries, notes, or official documents. In general, such information usually determines a qualitative parameter of the study, but psychologists should also collect numerical data. The collected data can be analyzed using various theories, for example, grounded theory, interpretation – phenomenological analysis, text interpretation and so on. All the approaches mentioned above use predicted hypotheses, are ideographic in nature, that is, they are aimed at a specific case, without reference to the comparison group.

Case methods are widespread in psychology, and the most famous among them are the methods of Sigmund Freud. He carried out extremely highly detailed investigations of the privacy of his patients in an attempt to help them overcome the ailment and understand its causes. The most famous examples of Freud`s application of case study are “Little Hans” and “Rat Man”. And today, medical records are one of the main methods of investigation in clinical psychology and psychiatry. It is important that the students, who study these disciplines, these stories can give a clear understanding, of what people subject to mental illness experience.

Case methods are often used in clinical medicine, they include the collection and compilation of reports from descriptive data devoted to one case, or a specific environment, such as a school group. In psychology, the method of case study is often used in a limited way, as applied to an individual. Information is used, mainly biographical, which is of great importance in his past and everyday life. In order to obtain a highly detailed dossier, psychologists use a variety of sources, such as a case history, data from employers, data from educational institutions, the results of psychological tests and so on. The interview in this context is also a highly effective procedure for collecting information, it can also be applied, either directly to the individual, or to receive characteristics from his friends or family members.

Why to order a case study in psychology?

Are you a student and your prfesssor gave you the task of writing a case study in psychology? Do not panic, contact a specialist. And here is why:

  • Proceeding from the foregoing, it becomes clear that the method of case study can only be used by specialists with the highest qualifications.
  • In addition, the ethical side of this context is obvious. Only someone, who is highly qualified to make a diagnosis, can conduct such a detailed study concerning the patient and various aspects of his personal life and behavior.
  • An important factor here is the fact that a specialist using this methodology describes the patient`s behavior. Such a description is based on the results obtained from all sources mentioned above.
  • Obviously, the report obtained as a result unequivocally contains the interpretation of the author. The interpretation is that the author decides, what information to include in the report, and which should not be mentioned at all.
  • A good case study should always contain indications of the parts that are factual information obtained during the investigation and the parts that were developed under the influence of the researcher`s personal attitude. It all requires deep knowledge of psychology.

Do not be at a loss, contact an experienced specialist! Online services are at your disposal!

Descriptive essay is dedicated to the description of objects, events or people.

It isn’t self-sufficient, it reinforces a certain thesis. It must have liveliness and persuasiveness of the description, the presence of bright details. A certain orderliness of the description is expected.

It may be a story about an event, a person’s story or organization. Text is built in chronological order. In the essay-description there is no place for criticism and analysis, but subjectivity is still present – in the symptoms themselves, which paper writer drew attention to, in the formulation, in emotional coloring.

Most often, the essay consists of five paragraphs, but the descriptive essay can be much longer.

If you are planning an essay out of five paragraphs, the main part should have three paragraphs, therefore, three supporting evidence that reveal your thesis.

If you want to get high marks for your essay, after writing a draft it is worthwhile to get down to work. Reread the essay several times, ruthlessly remove the failed paragraphs, add new arguments, find more catchy phrases – so you will get really interesting essay.

Ideally, the essay is written not for the teacher, but for the readers, so it makes sense to show it to a few acquaintances or colleagues. There are various ways to attract the attention of the reader. You can enter a quote that relates to your topic, present an interesting fact or statistics, suggest a definition or ask a rhetorical question. You can also tell an anecdote, give an analogy or a general observation on your topic.

The last sentence of your final paragraph should contain one final statement on the topic of your work.

As the main thoughts consider the following options:

An explanation of how the topic affects the recipient

An explanation of how the narrow topic of your essay refers to a wider topic or observations

Calling the reader for action or further research on the topic

The posing of new questions that have been raised in your essay

But that’s not all. After the final approval of the content of the descriptive essay, it is still necessary to properly design and print it.

Writing an essay  is a rather popular academic task, but despite this, students still have difficulties writing certain types of essays.

In addition, students are tend to create a certain top-lists of essay types, and some of these types students consider as easy (such as narrative, descriptive) and those that they do not really enjoy – in particular, analytical, persuasive essays.

 Why the analytical essay has become a leader in  the anti-list of essays among students? Students say that such type of  essay involves a very troublesome work, an extremely sophisticated survey of the object, collection of information, its verification and collection this in a single work – it really looks like a rather difficult task, in comparison  with, for example, a descriptive essay.

In this article we will talk about this type of essay, how to love it and write really good works, while  the process of creating will bring you pleasure!

So the first thing you have to do is to understand the purpose of the analytical essay. The analytical essay means that you will have to submit the object from all points of view, and evaluate it objectively. Most often you will have to analyze another essay, music, a natural object, a picture or a movie, but you may also be asked to analyze a problem or idea. To do this, you need to divide the topic into pieces and provide evidence, both from the text or movie, and from your own research that supports your position.

You must also clearly decide what to write about. If you are writing this for a class, your teacher will usually assign you a topic (or topics). However, more often you will have to come up with your own theme.

If you are writing an analytical essay on a work of fiction, you can focus your argument on what motivates a certain character or a group of characters to do one or the other thing. Or you could argue why a particular line or paragraph are central in the whole work.

If you are writing about a historical event, try to concentrate on the forces that contributed to what happened. If you are writing about research, follow the scientific style of writing.

It is said that the most difficult stage in the process of creating an analytic essay is the beginning.

Now you know a bit more about the details of getting started, and we hope that it will be useful for  you!

People believe that an essay is an ordinary composition. From the French essay means “sketch” or “sketch”. It reflects the individual thoughts of the author, his policy on this or that issue. The essay reflects your own opinion or impression, but does not answer a specific question.

The main features of the essay: there must be a certain narrow topic that should prompt the reader to reflect. In the essay the author has a subjective position. The essay should be written in a colloquial style. Do not use complex sentences and wording. It’s important to follow a laid-back style to establish contact with the reader. It is great not to overdo it, turning the essay into a substandard text full of slang. The essay has a format of presentation that does not fit into any definite framework. Despite the free composition, the essay must have an internal unity, consistency of the author’s statements expressing his opinion. Essay – this is a replica, addressed to the prepared reader (listener). That is, a person who in general already represents what will be discussed. This allows you to focus on discovering a new one and not clutter up the presentation with service details.

If you don’t have a list with topics for essay, among which you can choose one, and give only a general direction, then you need to consider for which audience the essay is intended. Initially, you need to find articles on the same topic and collect material from them for the essay. Read and quote the links and not the articles themselves. Begin the introductory speech with the main statement about your essay. The reader should immediately understand that you are trying to convince him. The words that you identified as key, do not necessarily have to be in the problem itself. It often happens that these words do not enter into it, but only encourage the formulation of the problem.

And the last thing: you need to repeat that your ideas are not new. If you are not working on a master’s thesis, or at least your last master’s thesis, then it’s unlikely that you are the first person who thinks about a specific thought and publishes it. Synthesize old ideas into interesting arguments.

In conclusion, it’s necessary to repeat the problem posed in a different formulation and, based on our own examples and reasoning, reach the appropriate conclusions. Inference must be formulated briefly, otherwise there is a danger of moving away from the topic.

Advise for the development of the concept of the course project:

-consider the subject of the work and do not exceed it;

-check the availability of the material concerning this topic;

When a suitable concept for your course work is selected, you should divide it into two or three main parts. Than determine the sequence of consideration of these parts, taking into account the logic, the chronology of thematic blocks and subsections, the importance and background of the constituent parts. After that, you should transform it into a plan, which will become the basis or structure of our work.

The main parts of the work in the plan will be called sections, which, in turn, consist of several subsections.

The title of sections and subsections should clearly indicate their content and don’t go beyond the scope of the work.

Conclusion to the coursework, just like the introduction, is an important structural part.

It is the result of the whole study, the conclusion and enumeration of the possibilities for further developments in this industry. A well-written conclusion will become a logical closing of the work, making it completed.

How to write a conclusion to the coursework?

The conclusion is a logical continuation of the introduction. If at the beginning of the work you set certain goals, then, while thinking how to write the conclusion for the course work, focus on whether you achieved these goals. Did the chosen methods helped you with this? What was the outcome of the study?

In drawing up the conclusions, brief inferences can help you. They should be at the end of each section or chapter.

Combine the data and results that have become known during the practical study of your topic. Also, focus on the novelty. What new things did you learn while doing your research? If you have any difficulties in writing the conclusion, then you can order the course work.

Do not forget to indicate the practical value of your course. You can use such phrases as: “The findings of the study suggest that …”, “The results of this analysis can be used in all areas of science relating …”.

Defense is the main test to which a diploma is subjected. Training for the student was to protect the coursework in previous courses. To defend the thesis work, an opponent is appointed (a teacher or a graduate student who passed the candidate’s minimum in the specialty), a reviewer (graduate student). Their names you will know in advance. If are not notified, do not be lazy and find out for yourself – it will be useful. Opponents should receive the text of the diploma for review at least a week before the defense.

On the defense, you will be asked various questions, which are often associated with a misunderstanding of the text. It is necessary to show calmness and clearly answer all possible claims. Sharp answers on the iron defense are not welcome, but to conduct an active “defense” is necessary.

It is highly desirable to have a scientific leader as not an opponent, but an ally. This is determined by the nature of the previous communication with the scientific adviser.

Therefore, real communication with the leader should be optimally efficient, then he will not be able to impose his concept on you, spoiling the relationship at the same time. More over, he must be absolutely sure that you need it not as a bureaucratic cover (although this too), but as a scientific authority and an experienced methodologist.

Thus, the qualification work (diploma) is a student’s own education and research development reflecting the result of the theoretical and practical training received for individual academic disciplines. Performance of the qualification work assumes a wide use of cultural-historical and modern scientific literature, reference materials, statistical data, advanced foreign and domestic experience with a view to consolidating and further deepening the theoretical and practical knowledge obtained.

When writing a thesis, students must realize the inadequacy of knowledge of one compulsory educational material; therefore, they should familiarize themselves with a wide range of both general and specialized literature on the subject, be able to relate theory questions to practice, draw appropriate conclusions and give recommendations.

In the process of researching the problem, the students’ abilities to independently carry out search and research activities, analyze and generalize theoretical and practical material, draw reasoned conclusions, make recommendations on the topic being developed. When doing a thesis, modern research methods should be used.